The Art of Motorcycle Frame
The frame on a motorcycle is to support the engine and the electrical equipment for the jam and frame must have sufficient strength to carry the driver and withstand shocks while on the road. But the frame should not to be heavy and stable with the right load and has a good damping effect. Therefore a frame or frame designer must have a style and design that suits its function.
Framework should be strong and stiff but lightweight. Meanwhile, if viewed in terms of geometry, the frame must be in accordance with the desired geometry of the steering system and suspension. Beside that it must also be able to keep the wheels parallel to the front and rear. The main material for a motorcycle frame is plastic and metal. Plastic frame parts such as windbreaks, frame covers and wheel protectors. While the main parts are made of metal, for example the main frame, steering wheel, swing arm and engine holder.
Difference of Frame Material
There are 4 types that can be distinguished from the following materials:
- Steel Tube Frame
The framework of the steel pipe will provide many size options and is suitable for making frames and its many advantages in the structure of a motorcycle engine. Therefore, it can be widely used for sport type and duck type motorcycles.
2. Stell Plate Frame
The weaknesses of the iron pipe frame are that there are some structural parts which are difficult to form, and the frame of the iron plate is very suitable because it is easily arranged and has a good thick day.
3. Combination Frame
The frame consists of a combination of steel pipes and steel plates, consisting mostly of pipes and a small portion made of welded iron plates. This combination for effectiveness of motorcycle design.
Type of Frame
- Pressed Frame
Frames are mass-produced from pressed or stamped metal sheets into shapes. Usually a single-cradle structure is used. This frame is suitable for a motorcycle with low power and long wheelbase cruisers and also the earliest motorcycle chassis design technology.
- Single Cradle Frame
Single Cradle is the simplest type of motorcycle frame, and looks similar to the first motorcycle frame. It is made from a steel tube that surrounds the machine with the main tube above and a smaller diameter tube underneath. Motorcycle engines are attached to a single stand with a single spine. If a single seat becomes a double on the exhaust, as is often the case, this is referred to as a split single cradle frame.
- Half-Duplex Cradle Frame
Motorcycle engines are held in a dual holder with a single spine and a single downtube. This frame looks like double cradle and diaomond with dual holder side by side. A single backbone and a single lower backbone are the physical characteristics of this type of skeleton frame.
- Full Duplex Frame
Motorcycle engines are fully attached to two separate cradles, usually with a single spine. This skeleton characteristic is two separate tubs that support a motorcycle engine, but the spine usually remains single.
- Perimeter Frame
Perimeter frame is most commonly used in modern sport bikes. Some call this type of frame as the Twin Spar Frame and the basic concept of the perimeter frame design is to shorten the distance between the steering handlebars and the swing arm, with the aim that all kinds of mechanical effects of frame making materials such as elasticity and vibration due to the engine roar being driven can be minimized so as to increase the rigidity of the motorcycle. All the effects of deflection due to the distance of the handlebars and the long swing arm can be reduced. Initially, this frame used steel, but now it is generally shifting to the use of allumunium alloy which weighs one third of the weight of steel to reduce motor load. Even for motor racing, the material used can be carbon fiber that is lighter but stronger.
- Backbone Frame
The characteristic of this frame is motorcycle engines hang on a single spine. The backbone frame allows great flexibility in design, because it is hidden inside the motorcycle. The engine seems to hang in the air. It is simple and inexpensive to make, and is used mainly on Naked and off-road motorbikes.
- Beam Frame
Beam frame ss the type of frame that is most widely used on motorbikes. Usually this frame is made of aluminum material because aluminum has a weight of one third of the weight of steel. This is make the weight of motorcycle more light and it can help for aerodynamic for the top speed with best stability.
Monocoque means the construction that can distribute the entire force throughout the shell as well as egg shells. This construction was first developed in the aircraft industry in the early 1930s, and later developed in motor vehicles, ships, bicycles, buildings. Monocoque comes from the French which means single shell (mono means single and coque means shell).
- Trellis Frame
This frame connects the tubular head steering load to the swingarm shaft as directly as possible by using hollow segment structural parts in triangulation reinforcement. Generally made of metal round tube sections welded or brazed together, oval & pressed shapes are also used. In some hybrid casting frames used in the steering head / swingarm shaft area to increase strength. They work well for motorbikes by creating strong lightweight cross-type beam lattice frames that allow placement of engines & components and access for maintenance.
Trellis frame is widely used in Italian motorcycles. This framework embraces the same concepts and rationale as the perimeter framework of course with different shapes. Trellis frame is usually shaped intertwined turbular pipes which are welded one by one. Producing a trellis frame is cheaper than the perimeter frame. Perimeter order will be economical if it has touched a mass production base. Trellis frame research costs are also cheap. The more pipes crossed and the frame will be more rigid.
- Diamond Frame
The most used frame on a motorcycle and name of “diamond” is taken from the shape of a bicycle frame. On a motorcycle, the diamond frame is shaped like a bicycle frame in which there are blades or parts that seem to hang (down tube). This type of under-chassis chassis in the new motorbike is actually the development of a pure underbone chassis, either a plate or a combination of pure pipe and diamond frames are also applied to reinforced motorbike alias back bone.
The strength of the framework is very dependent on the shape or construction. The shape is adjusted to the type of motorcycle. Therefore, the types of frames used are various. For example, a boat used on a motorcycle will not be the same as a motorcycle or daily needs